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Lord Bingham - The 8 Principles of Rule of Law


It requires, as well, measures to ensure adherence to the principles of supremacy of law, equality before the law, accountability to the law, fairness in the application of the law, separation of powers, participation in decision-making, legal certainty, avoidance of arbitrariness and procedural and legal transparency.


The 8 principles are as below:


Sub-rule 1: The law must be accessible so far as possible, intelligible, clear and predictable.


Sub-rule 2: Questions of legal right and liability should generally be decided by application of the law and not the exercise of the discretion.


Sub-rule 3: The law must apply equally to everyone, unless differences can be justified.


Sub-rule 4: The law must provide appropriate protection of essential and basic human rights.


Sub-rule 5: The parties in civil disputes must be able to resolve disputes without facing a huge legal cost or excessive delays.


Sub-rule 6: The executive must use the powers given to them reasonably, in good faith, for the proper purpose and must not exceed the limit s of these powers.


Sub-rule 7: There must be adjudicative procedural fairness.


Sub-rule 8: The state must comply with the obligations of international law which whether deriving from treaty or international custom and practice governs the conduct of nations.



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